Risk control introduction puts reliability-creating, risk-eliminating choices into use in an organisation in ways that sustain their use forevermore

Once the strategies and activities for equipment risk control are selected you need a sure way to do the risk control introduction that embeds their use in the organization

IONICS PROCESS 4 requires there is risk control introduction of the strategies and activities identified as necessary to eliminate the causes of equipment failure.

PEW/PWW EAM Course Day 2 – Plant Wellness Way Processes Session 12 – Risk Control Introduction
Duration 4:48

Once the mix of operating risk controls are chosen and confirmed to be useful and effective they need to be introduced and used in your business. Because the current business processes are producing your current business outcomes the new risk management controls must to be put into the old processes so the new standards can work on them to improve work performance and company results.
Plant Wellness Process 4 – Introduce Risk Controls Solutions
Duration 7:27

Controlling the Chance of a Failure Event | Being ‘in control and capable’
Duration 4:22

Business process performance is mostly in our control. We improve our processes by choosing the policies and practices that reduce the chance of bad outcomes and events happening, and that increase the chance of good events and outcomes occurring. Typically, business process variability fits a normal distribution curve, like in the top Figure . When things are uncontrolled, the process produces a range of outputs that could be anywhere along the curve. Many real-world process outputs are normally distributed, but distributions can also be skewed or multi-peaked.
The way to tackle variability is to put a limit on the acceptable range of variation and then build, or change, business processes to ensure only those outcomes can occur. The bottom Figure shows a minimum specification of performance for a process producing wide variation.
It is necessary to change to a new game-plan when existing processes do not produce the required results. The top Figure represents the strategic aim when changing processes to make them capable. Deming said that it is the responsibility of management to improve a process, no one else can do it.
By designing and installing better ways that remove performance fluctuations, the volatility in the process can be reduced and stabilised. With volatility controlled the spread of results tighten around a consistent mean, as shown in the bottom Figure. Variation still exists but it is now within the desired limits. A process always producing repeatable outcomes within its control limits is in-control and capable. It becomes highly predictable and the results can be guaranteed.
ACE 3T Quality Management System is used for Continual System-Wide Improvement
Duration 2:51

The precision principle applies to all operations and business processes. To control a process and to control variations introduce standards and tolerances with measures for how close the process must meet those standards. Set standards for every stage of the process and measure how accurately the operation meets the standards at that point. If the process is controlled to appropriate standards throughout its performance the necessary product quality and throughput specified is automatically delivered. By being everywhere precise you get the end result required. This principle is a sure way to guarantee successful performance. Simply develop appropriate standards with specific targets and tolerances and make sure the real results are regularly measured and compared to the standard. People in charge of the equipment and operation can then adjust their performance, and that of the equipment and process, in a controlled fashion to meet the required accuracy. The standards are the key performance indicators for the process and are used to monitor its quality.
We create lasting reliability in our machines by stopping these problems starting
Duration 2:05

Many Opportunities for Errors in Our Wo
Duration 0:30

The top Figure shows that within a job are several tasks. The Figure below shows that each task there are many individual activities. These also form a series arrangement. When you have a series of activities following each other, where the next activity builds on the work performed by the previous ones, it only requires one error to happen and the whole job goes wrong. To get this job done right the first time requires each of the 25 activities to be done correctly. If one activity in one task is wrong, the job outcome will be wrong and the job will need redoing, possibly even scrapped. What is the chance that all twenty five activities will be done right, and that the whole job is 100% right?
Design Organisations that Support Reliability
Duration 3:22

To create a ‘reliability culture’ starts by questioning whether the current organisation can support it. In organisations modelled on the bureaucratic functional structure the distribution of knowledge and skills is into separated ‘silos’. Because knowledge is separated from the point of use people do not tend to bother finding out information that would improve their decision making. The result is less than optimal operation of plant and equipment and more problems and failures than there ought be.
Culture can be created by management. It is done by setting the required standards in place and training and managing to them. A reliability culture is developed by establishing the necessary practises and standards and holding people to them until they become the ‘way we do business here’.
Process Focused – Not Department Focused
Duration 2:58

What has been learnt from Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), where teams of operations and maintenance people are given responsibility for equipment performance, is that cross-functional teams perform better in achieving higher equipment reliability. The explanation for the better results is the change in focus from performing a function to delivering an outcome. People are no longer just doing a job; they are instead providing a result.
The process approach to doing work allows people to have ownership of the means and the outcomes. It allows them to put in their best efforts and ideas because they control the results that they produce through their work. This builds a ‘pride of ownership’ which lifts their productivity and the quality of their workmanship.
A reliability culture promotes cross-functional effort and the development of higher individual skills and knowledge that are used autonomously and spontaneously to continually improve the performance of the operation.
Why Hierarchy Organizations are High Risk
Duration 7:24

The department has a theoretic reliability of 0.99 or 1 error in every 100 opportunities – nearly 4-sigma quality. Yet organisations that produce 4-sigma performance are rare. Businesses without a quality control system typically rate 2.5-sigma. Those with a working quality system can be 3 to 3.5-sigma. The assumption of 90% reliability for people doing tasks seems to have been too high because the calculated results do not happen in reality. Let us repeat the calculations with a task reliability of 70% for each individual, or 2-sigma quality of 30 errors in every 100 opportunities. The manager improves the silo structure performance by 65% and the supervisor improves their group by 57%. The manager and supervisor are key to the success of a silo structure and if their error rate is high, the business suffers badly.
Organisations with hierarchical structures seem to have the potential to deliver reliable outcomes, but in reality most perform poorly. Too many times in a hierarchical business the outcomes are wrong. The difference in results between calculations warns us that poor department performance is the accumulated effect of poor individual task performance.
Teams Create Parallel Arrangements of People
Duration 0:55

How much difference does a well-functioning team make to the chance of a job going right? Figure shows the 5-task job, as a team might do it, with everyone helping other team members to get the best result. Person 1 is responsible for doing the work, with the support from two others on the team. Each person adds his or her useful contribution at each step. The arrangement of each task is now a parallel activity. Each task now has three people watching over it. If the person responsible for the work makes an error there are two others helping and checking them. Hopefully one of them will notice any error and correct it.
Cross-Functional Teams are High Performers | Teams Create Parallel Arrangements of People
Duration 1:09

The modelling of the silo hierarchical organisation and the cross-functional team structure in the calculations above are not how real organisations actually behave. The examples are constructs for the sake of exploring the effects of each form of structure on the outcomes of an organisation. The investigation indicates that people used in a team arrangement allow the team to produce better results than using those same people as a hierarchical structure. The big assumption is that the people in a team will actually work as a team to get the benefits of a parallel arrangement of functional experts. It means all members and managers are willing to proactively help each other in a spirit of friendship, trust, respect, learning and support for the mutual benefit of all.
How much difference does a well-functioning team make to the chance of a job going right? Figure shows the 5-task job, as a team might do it, with everyone helping other team members to get the best result. Person 1 is responsible for doing the work, with the support from two others on the team. Each person adds his or her useful contribution at each step. The arrangement of each task is now a parallel activity. Each task now has three people watching over it. If the person responsible for the work makes an error there are two others helping and checking them. Hopefully one of them will notice any error and correct it.
Team-up and bring Knowledge and Skill Together to Stop People Jumping to Wrong Conclusion
Duration 1:44

A person working alone, and making decisions themselves, is at serious risk of causing failure. They are decision-making alone in a series process. One error of judgement in one step of the process will fail the entire outcome, perhaps not immediately, but eventually. Working alone in any series process is a high risk activity. To protect people making decisions put them into a parallel activity where they must get more information and be better informed on their choices. Figure shows a decision requiring several parallel activities in order to reduce the risk of conclusion error.
Cross-Functional Teams Parallel the Members Skills and Knowledge together to Benefit All
Duration 1:24

The benefits of a team approach to running business activities become clear when it is realised a team is a parallel arrangement. Figure shows the parallel arrangement that teaming-up produces for our pumping system. A mechanical fitter and an electrician are teamed into the operations group. They bring their specialist equipment knowledge and trade skills to the team. Professionally qualified engineers are appointed to work in the team. The engineers bring their added technical knowledge and understanding to the team. The team gains the engineering skills, experience and information needed to achieve high reliability. Each team member learns to call on the situational expert for advice and information before making decisions. This does not mean that people move to new jobs; rather they fill a team function and become team members who work together and develop a team approach in running and caring for plant and equipment.
Promoting Operator Ownership
Duration 3:09

If we want operators to ‘own’ the performance of their equipment and feel responsible for delivering on-time, quality production, they first must be able to do so, while gaining satisfaction and pride when doing it. This often requires a new mindset for both the operator and their managers.
The simplest way to start is by first developing the operator’s competence to be able to make higher and higher quality product. Focus on quality production first, because that brings pride and competence to people. Only when the quality is consistently high do you then change the focus to making more product. If you try and force more production from operators first, they will see it as intentionally overworking them. But if you first help them to learn how to make high quality product, they will naturally progress to looking for more production, once they have mastered the performance of their machines.
Operator Monitoring and Watch-ke
Duration 3:06

The slide shows a small number of the large range of observations that an operator can do.
To enable precision operation it is necessary for both the operators and their supervisors to have an understanding of:
– the process that is being controlled
– the equipment involved in the process, how it functions and the part it plays
– the effects and consequences of overdriving the plant
– the maintenance requirements of the plant
In simplistic terms PPM involves work at two levels;
– Intrusive inspections and overhauls – almost always involves shutting down the machine and, perhaps, its associated system.
– Less complex checks and adjustments – the basics of plant maintenance.
It is in this Basic Maintenance role where plant operators may become involved, as well as in the Condition Checking.
– Where a “stitch in time will save nine”
– visual inspections or checks (look, listen, feel)
– cleaning (housekeeping)
– lubrication
– minor scheduled maintenance
It is in this role that Plant Operators function as the front line condition monitoring personnel by condition checking using See, Hear, Feel, and Simple instruments
Plant Operators have the potential to make an enormous and valuable contribution to the smooth running and reliability of the plant by being close to it and becoming familiar with it. The basic elements that will make this role effective are:
– Role is formally recognised – may involve appropriate training
– Advice and feedback is expected and there is a process for this
– The information is acknowledged and acted upon.
– Outcome is fed back
For effective Condition Checking:
– Plant housekeeping must be good
– Smooth running machinery to detect by hand a change in severity
– Feel bearing temperatures – if it is too hot to touch it is too hot for a bearing
– May require modification of guards to provide a safe and suitable access
Some of the benefits of good housekeeping;
– Encourages a sense of pride in the plant.
– Provides a safer working environment.
– Allows the observation of oil and other leaks.
– Wear debris from belts and couplings can be seen, giving early warning of impending failure.
– “Witness marks” of wear, rubs, fretting and machine movement can be observed.
Operators may be required to carry out minor maintenance tasks, some routinely and some on an occasional basis. Some of these will be covered by standard maintenance instructions. They must work to these and not rely on memory. Examples are Fitting blinds (pipe blanks), Replacing gaskets – scrape clean, correct disposal
Plant Operators, through their closeness and familiarity with the plant on a day by day basis, have a very valuable contribution to make to this. From their operational perspective a more balanced result may be achieved, covering all the possibilities. They also have a vested interest in having hassle free production runs.
Without the full participation of the Operations Managers and Supervisors, none of this will happen. They must clearly understand and support “the vision”, as expressed by policies and strategies from the board and senior management. Have expectations of the highest performance from their teams – no compromises.
Work to a common goal with their maintenance counterparts.
Operator/Maintainer Watch-keeping Tools
Duration 3:20

Plant operators are ideally placed to become frontline condition monitoring people. That does not mean that they need to be condition monitoring experts, rather that they are right there with the equipment, they walk past it every day. They are the ideal people to keep a close eye on its performance. We want them to become the experts on the plant’s condition so that they can warn of problems starting, before the problems cause a failure. We help them learn about their plant and equipment performance by giving the simple tools that let them monitor the plant. In time, as they learn what is causing their equipment problems, they will be telling us what to do to make the plant run better. This is a low cost condition monitoring strategy to monitor the whole operation. With this approach you get every item if plant checked, and you reserve the expensive condition monitoring techniques for the high risk plant and equipment that it cam be justified on.
Operator Monitoring and Watch-keeping
Duration 0:31

You may have to modify your equipment to give the operator access so it is safe and easy to take measures. If it is too hard to do the monitoring, you can never be sure it really got done properly.
The Importance and Value of Setting Targets
Duration 1:05

For a standard operating procedure to have powerful positive effects it needs clear and precise targets, tolerances and tests – the 3Ts of masterly work – which if faithfully met will produce the required outcome.
Great equipment reliability and production performance naturally follows when doing work to operating procedures using the 3Ts. Figure shows what accuracy means and how the 3Ts are used to get it. In terms of controlling variation in work quality, the 3Ts act to remove variability. They create statistical process control over human activity. 3Ts put into procedures standardize performance and deliver repeatable outcomes. Instead of having a wide range of possible results, the 3Ts limit the results to those you specify.
The Accuracy Controlled Enterprise (ACE)
Duration 0:15

Accuracy Controlled Enterprise is a work quality assurance system used by everyone in an organisation. ACE drives quality improvement by making each person responsible for the quality of their performance. It helps people to achieve precision in their workmanship by providing clear targets to meet, certainty about what is ‘good enough’ and a means to prove for themselves that they are doing quality work. It also permits and encourages them to improve their skills, and even change and improve the job design and make it simpler and easier.
An Accuracy Controlled Enterprise is not the same as an enterprise with a quality management system. Quality management imposes control over the processes, people and equipment that affect the quality of a product. ACE is subtly different because it is about instilling excellence into work; it’s about helping people to be great. From the most senior person to the least, the philosophy requires that people know what an excellent outcome is in every task they do, and they strive to achieve ‘good, better, best’ results. An ACE has clear targets, tolerances and tests in procedures for senior management as well as for shopfloor personnel. Senior managers show leadership by placing the requirements of ACE on themselves first. They show how the 3Ts of defect elimination improve their own performance before they take ACE into the organisation. Unlike quality management systems, where senior managers place the quality demands on those below them in the organisation, and then monitor their performance from above, the Accuracy Controlled Enterprise focuses on individual excellence and allows managers to lead their people by example. The ‘leading from the front’ required for successful ACE adoption is a very powerful symbol of management commitment to improving the organisation and helping its people.
The Need for Training and Precision Stand
Duration 2:17

Variations in work performance arise because human skills, talents and abilities are typically normally distributed. If we gauged the abilities of a wide cross-section of humanity to do a task, we would end up with a normal distribution bell curve, or Gaussian curve, of a talent in a large human population. The talent distribution curve also explains why continual training of the workforce is so important to a company’s long term success. If the available labour clusters around the mean performance level of a skill, then to get better needs additional training in the skill and opportunities to use it. Training and practice has the effect of moving average performers toward the elite portion of the population as shown in the top right-hand Figure.
Great SOPs are those that ensure work and workmanship quality. They contain detail and guidance, they include a target to hit, a tolerance on accuracy and regular proof-tests of compliance to guarantee job quality – they deliver masterly performance. In this way, they prevent defects from arising and so prevent future failures.
Duration 0:23

A technique for controlling the outcome of human controlled processes, is to build feedback loops into a process that provide information to continually correct our actions. These are known as the ‘3T’s of failure prevention’ – Target, Tolerance, Test.
The archery target bullseye has a tolerance. It is not a small dot, rather it is a disk of some 100mm diameter. Hence the target is dead-centre, but anywhere inside the bullseye is full marks. We know we are in the bullseye because we have an edge to measure from. So it is when the 3T’s are used to control failure in a process – we set a target, give a tolerance that is acceptable and provide a means to measure if we within tolerance. Once we confirm we are inside the tolerance we know we are right and can move to the next task.
PEW SOLUTION: Use ACE Quality System to Trap Best Knowledge for All to Use Forevermore
Duration 1:17

The quality management system is the repository of your corporate knowledge and skills database. All that knowledge is funnelled back into your business through the documents of your quality management system and is trained in to your people so that they know the best way to do what they do.

The Industrial and Manufacturing Wellness Book explains IONICS Process 4: Risk Control Introduction and addresses how to introduce risk controls

The new Industrial and Manufacturing Wellness book contains all the latest information, all the latest templates, and worked examples of how to design and build a Plant Wellness Way Enterprise Asset Management (PWWEAM) system-of-reliability. Get the book from its publisher, Industrial Press, and Amazon Books.
The PLANT WELLNESS WAY EAM TRAINING COURSE teaches you to use and master the Plant Wellness Way EAM methodology. Follow this link to read about Training for New Users in the Plant Wellness Way EAM Methodology for World Class Reliability.
You are welcome to go to the Plant Wellness Way Tutorials webpage and look at worked examples of Plant Wellness Way EAM techniques and read in-depth explanations of the latest version of many PWWEAM presentation slides.
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